e-book Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 book. Happy reading Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 Pocket Guide.
Request PDF on ResearchGate | Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13 | Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at.
Table of contents

Based on a decade of study, this book provides a scholarly overview of organic dairy politics, Good agroecological practices are indispensable for the development of sustainable agriculture. In this book, principles, diversity and applications of agroecological practices for a range of systems are presented, transforming scientific research and participatory knowledge of production into practical application. It illustrates a broad Good agroecological practices are indispensable for the development of sustainable agriculture Ann Larkin Hansen shows you how to identify and refine your specific land needs using checklists and questionnaires.

Ann Larkin Hansen shows you how to identify and refine your specific land needs using checklists and Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. It is a discipline that addresses current issues: climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a This book presents applied tools and practices for sustainable agriculture.

It details lessons learned from the Southeastern USA, which can be applied worldwide. Presents safe techniquest to preserve stored grains Lists biopesticides produced by plants Review methods to control ants see more benefits. Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book Sustainable agriculture is a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children.

To compound the problem of P availability, added P fertilizers undergo fixation due to the complex exchanges within the soil limiting the availability of P to plants Zhu et al. The role of microbial inoculants in increasing the availability of soil P for plant growth can be viewed from two perspectives: firstly the solubilization of P from the mineral rock thereby increasing the available P in soil solution and secondly the mobilization of the available P to the plant roots for uptake.

Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and phosphate mobilizing microorganisms Owen et al.

Research - Articles

These microorganisms produce organic acids that chelate the cations bound to phosphate and convert them to soluble form Calvo et al. The application of these organisms, either as bacterial or fungal inoculants, has advantage over the P fertil- izers that readily form complexes in the soil when applied because the microbes can continuously supply available P to plants over a long range of time.

Soil manage- ment practices that incorporate microbial inoculant application can really benefit from the sustained P supply to crops.


  • Emerging agroscience.
  • The Egyptian Book of the Dead.
  • Download Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 13.
  • Australasian Agribusiness Review - Volume 7, .
  • Piers Plowman: A Modern Verse Translation;
  • Probability: An Introduction.
  • Follow journal;

The most studied among the P mobilizing fungi is the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widespread in the plant kingdom and contribute significantly to plant P nutrition and growth in natural ecosystems Smith et al. The mechanism of increased P uptake by Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been attributed to the fungal extra radical hyphae growing beyond the phosphate depletion zone that develops around the root Smith and Read Positive effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on the growth and P nutrition of crops have been reported Cozzolino et al.

Many mycorrhizal inoculants have been produced on a commercial scale, mostly in the US and Europe. Rhizophagus formerly Glomus intraradices and Funneliformis formerly Glomus mosseae Kruger et al.

Some other fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium spe- cies are able to solubilise inorganic phosphate and mineralise organic phosphate by secreting organic acids and producing phosphatase enzymes Wang et al. The significant role of microbial inoculants in increasing the sustainable availability of P to plant is that of P solubilization and P mobilization.

Inadequate supplies of K to plants can lead to poor root growth, slow growth and lower yields in crops White and Karley K-solubilizing microorganisms present in soil and plant rhizosphere are evi- dently involved in the K cycles Liu et al. Potassium-solubilizing microor- ganisms improve soil nutrients and structure and plant growth by releasing K from insoluble minerals into the soil Meena et al. The microorganisms in the olubukola. A wide range of rhizospheric microorganisms that have been used as inoculants for increasing the K soil content or K plant nutrition include Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Arthrobacter sp.

Bacillus edaphicus, Bacillus circu- lans, Bacillus mucilaginosus, Burkholderia sp. Zarjani et al. AM fungal inoculants have also been reported to increase K uptake. However, the increased K by mycorrhizal has often been linked to increased P availability Cardoso and Kuyper Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are responsible for K solubilization and mobilization for sustain- able improvement of K availability to plants.

It refers to the three dimensional arrangement of organic or mineral complexes aggregates and pore spaces, which is usually quantified by size distri- bution of aggregate or the stability of aggregates. Aggregate formation and stabili- zation are mediated by several factors which include soil microorganisms Lucas et al. The role of microorganisms in the aggregate formation and stabilization of soil is well documented Lucas et al.

Activities of bacteria and fungi applied as inoculants in the enhancement of soil structure are affected by the aggregate scale micro- or macroaggregate , soil types and soil mineralogy Six et al. While fungi stabilize macroaggregates, bacteria are more involved in the enhancement of microaggregates Bossuyt et al. Bacteria play less role in coarse textured sandy soil where only the hyphal network is able to cross-link the abundant sand particles to form stable aggregates, whereas in clayey soil, both bacteria and fungi and their product play the role in aggregation Six et al. Fungi are unique in influencing soil aggregate formation and stabilization because of the hyphae devel- opment and production of extra cellular polysaccharides.

Hyphal networks enmesh and entangle macroaggregates while extracellular polysaccharides help to bind the micro-aggregates into stable macroaggregates Bossuyt et al.

Sustainable Agriculture

Bacterial inoc- ulants could play a key role in the soil structural stabilization through their secre- tions and exudates for microaggregate formation and stabilization. The most studied fungi in soil structure stabilization are mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizas are well recognized for their role in the improvement of soil structure Leifheit et al.

According to Rillig and Mummey , mycorrhiza can influence soil aggregation at three main different scales; plant community, individ- ual host plant root and fungal mycelium. However, our focus in this review is on the fungal mycelium which develops with the application of the fungal inoculant. Arbuscular mycorrhiza contribute to soil structure by 1 developing extraradical hyphae into the soil that align soil particles, providing the skeletal structure that enmeshes microaggregates to form macroaggregates; 2 secreting product like glo- malin and glomalin related protein, mucilage, polysaccharides, hydrophobins and other extracellular compounds that cement aggregates and 3 delivering plant- derived carbon to aggregate surfaces Rillig and Mummey ; Cardoso and Kuyper These processes are important for soil aggregation because of the space occupied by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil system.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce significant biomass and represent dominant fungal bio- mass in agricultural soil Rillig and Mummey and this is probably the reason for the positive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on soil aggrega- tion as reported by Leifheit et al. Considering the agricultural practices that are damaging to the soil structure, the use of mycorrhizal inoculants will not only help in the nutrition of crops, but also enhance the structural stability of agricultural soil.


  • The Nature of Fiction!
  • Buy Sustainable Agriculture Reviews Volume 13.
  • Insektizide · Bakterizide · Oomyceten-Fungizide / Biochemische und biologische Methoden · Naturstoffe / Insecticides · Bactericides · Oomycete Fungicides / Biochemical and Biological Methods · Natural Products.

Both bacteria and fungi inoculants show potential for use in sustainable soil aggregate formation and stabilization and hence, soil structure enhancement. In most ecosystems, both fungi and bacteria are capable of resisting drought condition. However fungi show greater resistance than bacteria. Yuste et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and saprophytic fungi have also exhibited better resistance to a wider range of heat and drought conditions compared to bacteria, However actinomycetes was an exception Bell et al. This is not far from the fact fungi have extensive hyphal networks that enable them to access a larger volume of soil.

These help fungi to regulate osmotic stress more effectively than bacteria Leifheit et al. In the same vein Arbuscular mycor- rhizal fungi show greater tolerance to drought than the saprophytic group Davinic et al. This is associated with its ability to enhance greater plant nutrient and water uptake, greater carbon assimilation efficiencies. Fungi are also able to break- down more complex organic structures such as cellulose and lignin Schwarze et al. The mechanisms by wish these inoculants enhance plant drought tolerance include: increased hydric content, decreased antioxidant enzymatic activi- ties, increased nutrient uptake, and decreased stomata conductance.

They are also able to maintain indole acetic acid and increase proline production. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculants can improve crop drought tolerance in crop via glomalin induced changes in soil structure. Microbial inoculation during drought increased; plant growth, physiological and biochemical plant values that aid adaptive plant response, root growths, water content and plant C, K, Ca and Mg content Armada et al.

Some microorganisms that have been used to improve crop tolerance to drought include: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae, Aspergillus niger, Phanerochaete chrysosporium Medina et al. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN, Enterobacter sp. FD17 Naveed et al. Microbial inoculants are capable of remediating both organic and inorganic soil contaminants Alori Some plants and associated microbial inoculants in phytoremediation of some soil inoculants are shown in Table 9. Plants, in association with microbial inoculant, can remove or transform con- taminants into harmless substance.

Microbial populations through the release of chelating gents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant. The use of microbial inoculants in phytoremediation of polluted soil is cost efficient than alternative engineering- based solutions such as incineration, soil excavation, or land filling of the contami- nated materials. Site use and remediation can occur simultaneously. It is an in situ approach, It treats the contamination in place so that large quantities of soil, sedi- ment or water do not have to be pumped out or dug up of the ground for treatment.

It is environmentally friendly, i. It enhances soil nutrient availability to the plants. Require less equipment olubukola. Table 9.

Recommended for you

Medicago sativa Cytisus striatus Rhodococcus erythropoli Hexachlorocyclohexane Becerra-Castro et al. Pseudomonas sp Arabidopsis Achromobacter Aromatic compounds Ho et al. Bacillus megaterium Lolium Pseudomonas putida Naphthalene Kuiper et al. Microbial assisted phytoreme- diation do not require digging up or hauling of soil, hence it saves energy Alori The strategies of microbial inoculants in remediation of polluted soil are safe and the effects are sustainable.

According to Shirmadi et al. Salinity has a direct effect on both the physical-chemical and biological properties of the soil, rendering such soils unsuitable for crop growth and biological processes. More also, it reduces ion activity in soil solution thereby, leading to nutrient deficiency and reduction of overall growth and yield quality of plant. Paul and Nair , stress that plants become vulnerable to soil borne dis- eases under saline stress In the past, some of the strategies employed to alleviate salt stress include the following: leaching of excess soluble salts from upper to lower soil depth, developing salt resistant cultivars, harvesting salt accumulating aerial plant parts in areas with negligible irrigation Karthikeyan et al.

These strate- gies are labour intensive and highly scientific. As a result, cost of cultivation may become increased and sometimes impossible. This has necessitated the need to dis- cover agronomic system that can support plant growth under salinity stress that will not be accompanied by any environmental or health hazard.

Some soil microorganisms have been identified to be capable of alleviating salin- ity stress in plants and thus improving plants growth and yield. These soil microor- ganisms include the following genera: Agrobacteria, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Glomus Gordonia and Pseudomonas. They are environmentally-friendly, economi- cally viable and energy efficient. The application of these groups of microorganisms is therefore a promising approach for alleviating salinity stress in plants.

Microbial inoculants ameliorate salt stress in plant via increased nutrient uptake, induced antioxidative defense system, modulation of the level of plant hormones, and reduction of ethylene level by producing 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate- deaminase in plants rhizosphere. Inoculation of sunflower with Pseudomonas fluo- rescens biotype F and Pseudomonas fluorescens CECT T in sun flower grown in substrate with addition of salt NaCl showed that these strains that alleviate salt stress in sun flower produced indoleacetic acid and siderophores.

In the same vein, Jha et al. The microbial inoculants also induced some osmoprotectants which help to overcome the deleterious effects of salt stress. Microbial inoculation improves most plants growth and vigor. They enhance root growth and exudation Babalola ; Trabelsi and Mhamdi When applied seeds, plants surface or soil, microbial inoculants increase the availability and supply of essential nutrients to host plants and thereby promoting growth.

Research - Articles | Page 9 | Sustainable Development Goals - Resource Centre

Microbial-inoculated plants show a reduction in membrane potential, accelerated osmotic adjustment, and enhanced lateral root development due to higher nitric acid and indoleacetic acid production Dimkpa et al. Production of phytohormones by microbial inoculants can result in modification of root morpho- genesis and hence support water uptake to plant roots. Some common microbial components of biofertilizers include: Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, mycorrhizae, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, and Rhizobium.

Microbial biofertilizers could be grouped into; Nitrogen fixers e. Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, phosphate solubilizers e. Pseudomonas, bacil- lus, Aspergillus etc. Microbial bio-fertilizers are cost effective and cheaper than the conventional techniques. They increase phosphorus and potassium, increase water absorption and keep soil biologically active. In soils cropped with legumes, the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculants tremendously improve growth and yields.

More also, inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improved growth of chickpea Cicer arietinum L. The inoculation of maize with Trichoderma harzianum strain T22 as a biofertilizer shortens the plant growth period and time and reduced lignifications hence, enhanced fresh state of maize plant Akladious and Abbas However, microbial biofertilizers are associated with the following limitations: i The performance and efficacy of microbial inoculants Biofertilizers cannot be easily tested in the field i.

The mechanism of action of the biofertilizers in promoting growth is not yet well understood. In attempting to deal with these issues, research into biofertilizer is increasing. Nutritional deficiency could exist due to low transfer of micro and macro nutrients olubukola. Microbial inoculants produce antifungal secondary metabolites such as 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol and lytic enzymes.

Some also confer plant protection against the activities of dieses causing organism by producing chitinase and prote- ase enzymes. Microbial biocontrol agents also antagonize pathogens by competitive colonization of plant root and by forming biofilms in the hydroponic and soil systems. Numerous microbial inoculants for control of several diseases especially species of the bacteria Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Streptomyces and the fungus Trichoderma-, causing plant diseases as leaf spots, brown patch, Pythium blight and root rot, Fusarium wilt, dollar spot, summer patch, take-all patch, Verticillium wilt and Typhula blight have been studied by various researchers.

Micromonospora chalcea and aphanidermatum Streptomyces spiralis Streptomyces Sclerotium rolfsii Sugar beet Errakhi et al. Bacillus subtilis Stem-end rot Avocado Demoz and Korsten flowers olubukola. They have capacity to produce a wide range of enzymes and metabolites, the ability to produce auxin or indole acetic acid, solubilize phosphate, produce siderophores Hmaeid et al.

They can persist in soil, are stable in storage and culture and are able to tolerate environmental constrains such as stress caused by fluctuating soil water conditions, use of fertilizers or agrochemicals both organic and conventional and soil disturbance such as cultivation Hungaria et al. The success of microbial inoculation depends largely on the following: the plant species and cultivar, soil type, soil moisture and temperature conditions, the number of pathogens present in the soil around the plant and how the inoculants were pre- pared and applied Babalola et al.

Good microbial inoculants carrier should i be easily handled and stored for a long period of time. Bacterial inoculants should be kept under a cool temperature, between 1. Fungal inoculants are best kept dry. Excessive heat or cold is never of benefit. Also to be noted is the fact that agronomic practices have profound effects on soil organisms. They should therefore be designed to work in harmony with microbial inoculants and biological processes in order to support sustainable agricultural systems.

The use of appropriate carrier material determines the success of microbial inoculation techniques olubukola.